What is Motherboard in a Computer | definition | main parts of motherboard

The motherboard is a printed wired bord(PWB) that holds all the circuits to connect to various components of the computer system. What is Motherboard in a Computer, Definition of motherboard, Major parts of motherboard, Central processing unit, (CPU), Computer's microprocessor, Random access memory, (RAM), Basic, input/output system (BIOS) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, (CMOS), Cache memory, Extension buses, Computer chipset, Cpu clock, Switches and Jumpers,

What is a Motherboard in a Computer: 

The motherboard is a printed wired board(PWB) that holds all the circuits to connect to various components of the computer system.

Definition of motherboard 

  One motherboard is one of the most essential parts of the computer system.  It puts together many important components of the computer, including the central processing unit (CPU), memory and connector for input and output devices.  Depending on the motherboard, there is a very strong sheet of non-conductive material, usually some kind of hard plastic.  The thin layer of copper or aluminum foil, referred to as a mark, is printed on this sheet.  These marks are very narrow and make circuits between different components.  In addition to the circuit, a motherboard has many sockets and slots to add other components.

Motherboard in a Computer | definition | main parts of motherboard

Major parts of motherboard 


Central processing unit (CPU) or Computer's microprocessor

  Also known as a microprocessor or processor, the CPU is the computer's brain.  It is responsible for bringing mathematical direction and logical calculation as well as bringing, decoding and executing program instructions.

  The processor chip is identified by processor type and manufacturer.  This information usually appears on the chip.  For example, Intel 386, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 386, Syriix 486, Pentium MMX, Intel Core 2Duo, or iCore7.

  If the processor chip is not on the motherboard, you can identify the processor socket as socket 1 from socket 8, LGA 775 other.  This can help you identify the processor that fits the socket.  For example, the 486DX processor fits into socket 3.

Random-access memory (RAM)

  Random-access memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips, which temporarily stores dynamic data to increase the performance of the computer while working.

  In other words, this is the workplace of your computer, where active programs and data are loaded so that at any time the processor needs them, it does not need to get them from the hard disk.

  Random-access memory is unstable, which means that it loses its content after the power is off.  It is different from non-volatile memory, such as hard disk and flash memory, in which the power source is not required to maintain the data.

  When a computer stops properly, all the data located in the RAM comes back to permanent storage on a hard drive or flash drive.  In the next boot-up, RAM automatically starts filling up with load programs at startup, a process called booting.  Later, the user opens other files and programs that are still loaded into memory.

Basic input/output system (BIOS)

  BIOS is for the basic input/output system.  The BIOS is a "read-only" memory, which has low-level software that governs system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware.  Most people know the word BIOS by another name - device drivers, or just drivers.  The BIOS is essentially a link between computer hardware and software in a system.

  All the motherboards contain a small block of read-only memory (ROM) which is different from the main system memory used for loading and running software.  On PC, the BIOS contains all the code needed to control keyboards, display screens, disk drives, serial communication, and many different functions.

  System BIOS, a ROM chip on the motherboard used during the startup routine (boot process) to check the system and prepare to run the hardware.  The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because the ROM retains the information even when there is no power supply for the computer.

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor(CMOS)

  The motherboard also includes a small separate block of memory made of CMOS RAM chips, which is kept alive by the battery (known as CMOS battery) even when the power of the PC is closed.  When the PC is on, it prevents re-combination.

  To operate CMOS devices, very little power is required.

  CMOS RAM is used to store basic information about PC configuration, for example: -

  Floppy disk and hard disk drive type

  About CPU

  RAM size

  Date and time

  Serial and parallel port information

  Plug and Play Info

  Power Saving Settings

  Other important data kept in CMOS memory is time and date, which is updated by a Real-Time Clock (RTC).

Cache memory

  Cache Memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) which increases PC performance with preloading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passes the processor on demand.

  Most CPUs have an internal cache memory (built-in the processor) which is referred to as level 1 or primary cache memory.  It can be supplemented by external cache memory on the motherboard.  This is level 2 or secondary cache.

  In modern computers, level 1 and 2 cache memory is made in the processor die.  If the third cache is applied outside of the dying, then it is referred to as the level 3 (L3) cache.

Extension buses

  An extension is an input/output route from the CPU to peripheral devices and it is usually composed of a series of slots on the motherboard.  Plugin extension board (card) bus.  PCI is the most common bus in PCs and other hardware platforms.  Buses take the signal from the component to data such as data, memory address, power and control signals.  Other types of buses include ISA and EISA.

  Expansion buses increase PC capabilities by allowing the adapter card slot in expansion slots to allow users to add missing features to their computers.

Computer chip-set

  A chipset is a group of small circuits that synchronizes the flow of data from the main components of the PC.  These key components include CPU, main memory, secondary cache and any equipment located on buses.  Chipset controls the data flow of hard disks and other devices connected to IDE channels.

  A computer has two main chipsets:

  Northbridge (also called memory controller) is in charge of controlling the transfer between the processor and the RAM, which is why it is physically located near the processor.  This is sometimes called GMCH for graphics and memory controller hubs.

  Southbridge (also called input/output controller or expanse controller) handles communication between slow peripheral devices.  It is also called ICH (I / O controller hub).  The term "bridge" is usually used to designate a constituent which connects two buses.

Cpu clock

  The CPU clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides basic time signals for the CPU.  Using a quartz crystal, the CPU clock breathes life through the continuous flow of pulses in the microprocessor.

  For example, the 200 MHz CPU receives 200 million pulses per second from the clock.  A 2 GHz CPU gets two billion dal per second.  Similarly, in any communication device, a clock can be used to synchronize the data pulses between the sender and the receiver.

  A "real-time clock", also called "system clock", keeps track of day time and makes this data available to the software.  A "time-sharing clock" interrupts the CPU at regular intervals and allows the operating system to split its time between active users and/or applications.

Switches and Jumpers

  DIP (Dual in-line packages) are small electronic switches found on switch circuit boards which can be turned on or off like normal switches.  They are very small and therefore are usually flipped with a sharp object, such as the tip of a screwdriver, a folded paper clip or a pen top.  Keep in mind while cleaning the DIP switch, because some solvents can destroy them.  Dip switches are obsolete and you will not be able to find them in the modern system.

  There are small embossed pins on the jumper pin motherboard.  A jumper cap or bridge is used to add or shorten a pair of jumper pins.  When the bridge is connected to any two pins, through a shorting link, it completes the circuit and a definite configuration has been obtained.

  Jumper caps are metal bridges that close an electric circuit.  Typically, a jumper has a plastic plug that fits on a pair of emerging pins.  Jumps are sometimes used to configure extension boards.  By placing a jumper plug on a different set of the pin, you can change the parameters of the board.

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